The Application of al-Intiqal (the transition) on Synthetically Modified Organisms (SMOs): An Analysis from Shariah and Science Approaches
Keywords:Al-Intiqal,, Synthetic Biology, Synthetically Modified Organisms, Halal
Synthetic biology, or SynBio, is a fast-growing technology, that combines biology, chemistry, computer science, and engineering, producing synthetically modified organisms (SMOs), in which organisms for which a large part or the entire genome has been designed using computer-aided design tool and chemically synthesized. Concern arises when (deoxyribonucleic acid) DNA constructs are made up of impure (najs) substances in Shariah as raw material, like transfer of engineered pig cells with modified genomes. One of alternative verification methods of Shariah law, namely al-Intiqal (the transition), can assist Muslim jurists in determining legal rulings on particular Halal contemporary issues, as there is no explicit information about genetic modified technology in the Qur’an or Hadith. This study aims to determine the theory of al-Intiqal (the transition) from Shariah and science approaches and apply the structure and division of al-Intiqal (the transition) on SMOs productions, like synthetic spider silk and humanized pig organ. Qualitative methods were applied including library research, fiqh adaptation (al-takyif al-fiqhi), and semi structured in-depth interview. Study shows that two divisions of al-Intiqal (the transition) can be applied within SMOs productions, which are al-Intiqal al-sahih (the accepted transition) and al-Intiqal al-fasid (the damaged transition). Study concludes that DNA synthesizer as conversion agent within SMOs production process can be considered permissible (Halal), while synthetic spider silk is also permissible (Halal) as the raw material is considered pure and its transition process had completely occurred in Shariah, nonetheless humanized pig organ is impermissible (Haram) as the raw material and its recipient organism are impermissible (Haram) and its transition process had not completely occurred in Shariah, except for emergency (darurah) case with some provisions.
Al-Bakri, Z. M. (2021). Pemindahan organ khinzir kepada pesakit manusia. Maktabah al-Bakri. Available at: https://www.maktabahalbakri.com/pemindahan-organ-khinzir-kepada-pesakit-manusia/> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Albar, M. A. (2010). Islamic ethics of organ transplantation and brain death. In: Islam dan Pemindahan Organ. I. Ibrahim and A.B. Yang (Eds.). Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia, 101.
Almaany. (2010). Translation and meaning of Intiqal in Almaany English Arabic dictionary. Almaany.com. Available at: https://www.almaany.com/en/dict/ar-en/انتقال> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Al-Malibari, Zayn al-Din Ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz. (2004). Fath al-Mu’in bi Syarh Qurratil ‘ain bi Muhimmati al-Din. Beirut, Lebanon: Dar Ibn Hazm, 77.
Al-Shaukani, Muhammad Ibn Ali. (1994). Irshad al-Fuhul fi Tahqiq al-Haq min ‘Ilm al-Usul. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyya.
Al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din ‘Abd al-Rahman. (1983). Al-Ashbah wa al-Nazair fi Qawaid wa Furu’ Fiqh al-Shafi’iyyah. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-‘Ilmiyyah.
Benito, B. (2002). Synthesizing spider silk. Trends in Biotechnology, 20(5), 189.
Carter, A., & Manley, L. (2020). Synthetic Biology Tech Factsheets for Policymakers Spring 2020 Series. USA: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs Harvard Kennedy School.
Council of Senior Scholars. (1402H). Decision no. 99. In: Directory of the Regulations of Organ Transplantation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Jeddah: Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, 46.
Darul Iftaa. (2011). Is spider (coweb) impure? Madrasah Inaamiyyah South Africa. Available at: https://www.alinaam.co.za/0233/> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Ebrahim, A. F. M. (2002). Organ transplantation: An Islamic ethico-legal perspective. In: FIMA Year Book 2002. Islamabad: Federation of Islamic Medical Associations, 76-78.
Garthwaite, J. (2014). Beyond GMOs: The rise of synthetic biology. The Atlantic. Available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2014/09/beyond-gmos-the-rise-of-synthetic-biology/380770/> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Howitt, R. (2009). Islam and Organ Donation: A Guide to Organ Donation and Muslim Beliefs. London: NHS Blood and Transplant.
Hryhorowicz, M., Lipinski, D., Hryhorowicz, S., Nowak-Terpilowska, A., Ryczek, N., & Zeyland, J. (2020). Application of genetically engineered pigs in biomedical research. Genes, 11(670), 1-21.
Hryhorowicz, M., Zeyland, J., Slomski, R., & Lipinski, D. (2017). Genetically modified pigs as organ donors for xenotransplantation. Molecular Biotechnology, 59(9), 435-444.
Idris, S. H., Abdul Majeed, A. B., & Chang, L. W. (2020). Beyond Halal: Maqasid al-Shari’ah to assess bioethical issues arising from genetically modified crops. Science and Engineering Ethics, 26, 1463-1476.
Islamic Religious Council of Singapore. (2007). Pemindahan Organ di dalam Islam. Singapore: Islamic Religious Council of Singapore.
Jamaludin, M. A. (2013). Istihalah Konsep dan Aplikasi. Selangor: UPM Press.
Jamaludin, M. A., Ramli, M. A., Mustafa, S., & Ab Majid, M. Z. (2012). Aplikasi al-Intiqal dalam produk berasaskan makanan, in: Conference of Contemporary Fiqh. Gombak: International Islamic University Malaysia, 1-17.
Jawatankuasa Fatwa Negeri Pulau Pinang. (2018). Pandangan hukum penggunaan benang sutera pakaian batik dan tenun dalam industri batik di Malaysia dan garis panduan penggunaan tekstil berasaskan sutera menurut perundangan Islam. Jabatan Mufti Negeri Pulau Pinang. Available at: http://efatwa.penang.gov.my/fatwa_details.php?fatwaid=1344> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Khairuldin, W. M. K. F. W., Hassan, S. A., Anas, W. N. I. W. N., Mokhtar, W. K. A. W., & Embong, A. H. (2020). Al-takyif al-fiqhi and its application in Islamic research methodology. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(7), 462-467.
Kono, N., Nakamura, H., Ohtoshi, R., Moran, D. A. P., Shinohara, A., Yoshida, Y., Fujiwara, M., Mori, M., Tomita, M., & Arakawa, K. (2019). Orb-weaving spider araneus ventricosus genome elucidates the spidroin gene catalogue. Scientific Reports, 9, 8380.
Krishnasamy, M. (2007). Xenotransplantation. Malaysia: Ministry of Health, Health Technology Assessment Unit, Medical Development Division.
Ljubetic, A., Gradisar, H., & Jerala, R. (2017). Advances in design of protein folds and assemblies. Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, 40(October), 65-71.
Maulidizen, A., and Amar, K. M. (2018). The Urgency of Islamic Law Sources Knowledge Masadir al-Ahkam al-Mukhtalaf Fiha: Istishab, Sadd al-Dhari’a, and Qaul al-Sahabi. Hukum Islam, 18(2), 49-68.
Mufti Ebrahim Salejee. (2013). Is spiderweb (coweb) impure? Muftionline.co.za. Available at: http://www.muftionline.co.za/node/1819> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Mufti of Federal Territory. (2019). Bayan linnas siri ke-176: Pembaharuan pandangan hukum berkenaan pendermaan organ dan tisu. Official Website of Mufti of Federal Territory. Available at: https://www.muftiwp.gov.my/artikel/bayan-linnas/3314-bayan-linnas-siri-ke-176-fatwa-berkenaan-organ-dan-tisu> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Mufti of Federal Territory. (2020). Al-kafi 1752: The ruling of men wearing part-silk clothes. Official Website of Mufti of Federal Territory. Available at: https://www.muftiwp.gov.my/en/artikel/al-kafi-li-al-fatawi/4622-al-kafi-1752-the-ruling-of-men-wearing-part-silk-clothes> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2018). Biodefense in the Age of Synthetic Biology. Washington: The National Academies Press.
National Human Genome Research Institute. (2019). Synthetic biology. National Human Genome Research Institute. Available at: https://www.genome.gov/about-genomics/policy-issues/Synthetic-Biology> Access Date: 9th February 2022.
Poddar, H., Breitling, R., & Takano, E. (2020). Towards engineering and production of artificial spider silk using tools of synthetic biology. The Institution Journal Engineering and Technology, 4(1), 1-6.
Qal’ahji, M. R. (1985). Mu’jam Lughah al-Fuqaha’ (1st ed.). Beirut: Dar al-Nafa’is.
Randall, A. H., & Andrew, D. E. (2017). Synthetic DNA synthesis and assembly: Putting the synthetic in synthetic biology. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 9(1), 1-17.
Salahudin, A., Ramli, M. A., Zulkepli, M. I. S., & Abd Razak, M. I. (2017). Issues in Halal meat product and authentication technology from Islamic perspectives. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(12), 1305-1315.
Spiber Inc. (2019). Production of spiber silk proteins. Spiber Technologies AB. Available at: https://www.spiber.se/recombinant-production-of-spiber-silk-proteins/> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Steenhuysen, J. (2014). Genome scientist Craig Venter in deal to make humanized pig organs. Health News. Available at: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-transplants-pigs-idUKKBN0DM0JM20140506> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Stevens, S. (2019). Genome engineering for xenotransplantation. In: Genetic Engineering: A Glimpse of Techniques and Applications. F. Jamal (Eds.). IntechOpen, 33.
Teulé, F., Cooper, A. R., Furin, W. A., Bittencourt, D., Rech, E. L., Brooks, A., & Lewis, R. V. (2009). A protocol for the production of recombinant spider silk-like proteins for artificial fiber spinning. Nature Protocols, 4, 341-355.
Wilson, C. (2022). How a pig heart was transplanted into a human for the first time. NewScientist. Available at: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2304167-how-a-pig-heart-was-transplanted-into-a-human-for-the-first-time/> Access Date: 14th March 2022.
Xia, X-X., Qian, Z-G., Ki, C. S., Park, Y. H., Kaplan, D. L., & Lee, S. Y. (2010). Native-sized recombinant spider silk protein produced in metabolically engineered Escherichia Coli results in a strong fiber. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), 107(32), 14059-14063.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Penerbit UTM Press
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright of articles that appear in UMRAN - International Journal of Islamic and Civilizational Studies belongs exclusively to Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Penerbit UTM Press). This copyright covers the rights to reproduce the article, including reprints, electronic reproductions or any other reproductions of similar a nature.