Sufi Symbols In Poems Of Ibn ᶜArabi And Hamzah Fansuri

Authors

  • Mazlina Parman Islamic Civilization Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor
  • Nurazmallail Marni Islamic Civilization Academy, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.11113/umran2021.8n2.498

Keywords:

Sufism, Ibn ᶜArabi, Hamzah Fansuri, Comparative Literature.

Abstract

As a way of communication, poetry is used by the Sufis to portray their knowledge and experiences in searching for God. However, the use of words in describing immaterial experiences spurs misconceptions among readers. Nevertheless, signs such as symbols are still being used in Sufi’s poetry. It plays a key role in expressing mystical thoughts, myriad of emotions, and even uplifting our mundane spirits.  This article explores the meaning of symbols in Ibn ᶜArabi’s and Hamzah Fansuri’s poems. Both were known as prominent and controversially Sufi’s figures in two different regions, the Arab World and the Malay Archipelago. In studying it, a semiotic approach is used whilst a comparative approach is carried out to differentiate the existence of influence between the two figures as the latter is influenced theologically with the first. The finding shows that there is a likeness in the use of symbols and meaning connotations brought about by Ibn ᶜArabi and Hamzah Fansuri which proves the existence of influence between them, but variations are exhibited in the designation of the symbols which adhering to the different milieu, culture, and geographical places. Therefore, this study significantly indicating the authentication of Sufi poets in using symbols that portray the nation's culture and background. It also emphasizes the importance of interconnection between different cultures of Islam.

References

al-Quran al-Karim

Abdul Fatah Haron Ibrahim. (2006). “Syari’at, Tareqat, Haqiqat dan Ma’rifat: Suatu Analisa Kritis.” Jurnal Penyelidikan Islam, 19, pp. 1-30. Retrieved from http://www.myjurnal.my/public/issue-view.php?id=4652&journal_id=394 [1 October 2020].

Abdul Hadi W. M. (2012). “Jejak Sang Sufi: Hamzah Fansuri dan Syair-syair Tasawufny,” Siri Kuliah Umum “Islam dan Mistisisme Nusantara”, Teater Salihara, 21 Julai 2012, Retrieved from https://archive.org/stream/KumpulanARTIKEL-BULETINVol1f/2012-07-21-islam_mistisisme-hamzah_fansuri_djvu.txt [27 Februari 2018].

Abdul Sattar Awwad Ibrahim (2008). Ambiguity in Poetry: Definition, Function, and Elements. Journal Alustath, Issue 72, 801-816. Retrieved from https://www.iasj.net/iasj?func=fulltext&aId=43358 [18 January 2018].

Arba’iyah Mohd Noor (2020). “The Transition of Malay Women’s Role and Contribution in the Early 20th Century.,” Journal of Al_Tamaddun, 15 (1), 67-84. Retrieved from https://doi.org/ 10.22452/JAT.vol15no1.5 [3rd October 2020].

Arina Johari & Indirawati Zahid (2016). “Manifestasi Kesantunan Melayu dalam Ujaran Memberi dan Meminta Nasihat.” GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 16(2), 73-94. Retrieved from http://ejournal.ukm.my/gema/article/view/10982. [13 Januari 2018].

Armstong, Amatullah (1995). Sufi Terminology: The Mystical Language of Islam. Kuala Lumpur: A.S Noordeen.

al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naguib (1970). The Mysticism of Hamzah Fansuri, Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press.

Babakhani, B., Ardalan, E., & Seraj, S. (2017). “Comparing the Position of Faith in the Ideas of Kierkegaard and Ibn Arabi with Emphasis on the Meccan Revelations.” Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 6 (2), 636-646.

Braginsky, V. Y. (1975). “Some Remarks on the Structure of the “Syair Perahu” by Hamzah Fansuri.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde, (4de Afl), 407-426.

Burnahazmi, Yusuf Hadi (1389H). “al-Mar’ah wa al-Khamrah Ramzāni fī al-Syi’ri al-Ṣūfī,” al-Turath al-Adabī. 6 (2), 179-191.

Carr, N. (2017). “Symbol and Allegory in Romantic History.” New Literary History, 48 (1), 171-192.

Cook, Julian & Hirstenstein, Stephen. 2012. The Great Diwan and Its Offspring – The Collection and Dispersion of Ibn Arabi’s Poetry. Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society. 52, 33-91. (https://ibnarabisociety.org/wp-content/uploads/PDFs/jmias-52-cook.pdf)

Drewes, G.W.J & Brakel, L.F. (1986). Bibliotheca Indonesia: The Poems of Hamzah Fansuri. Leiden: Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology.

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (2004). Ensiklopedia Islam. Kuala Lumpur.

Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (2005). Kamus Dewan, 4th Ed., Kuala Lumpur.

al-Fairuzabādī, Majd al-Din Muḥammad Yaᶜqūb (1996). al-Qāmūs al-Muḥīṭ, 5th Ed., Beirut: Mu’assasat al-Risalah.

Ferber, Michael (1999). A Dictionary of Literary Symbols, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Gril, Denis. 2013. Ibn al-‘Arabi in Egypt – The Speech of Things. Journal of the Muhyiddin Ibn Arabi Society, 53. Retrieved from https://ibnarabisociety.org/the-speech-of-things-denis-gril/ [30 September 2020].

Hasymy, A. (1976). Ruba’i Hamzah Fansuri Karya Sastra Sufi Abad XVII. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Ibn Arabi, Mahyuddin bin Ali (n.d). Diwan Ibn Arabi. Nawaf al-Jarrah (ed.), Beirut: Dar Sadir.

Ibn Arabi, Mahyuddin bin Ali (2005). Dīwān Tarjumān al-Ashwāq. Abdul Rahman al-Mustawi (ed.), Beirut: Dar al-Ma’rifah.

Ibn Hajar al-ᶜAsqalānī (n.d). Fatḥu al-Bārī Syarḥ Ṣahīh al-Bukhārī. Muhammad Fuad Abdul Baqi (ed.), 1st Volume, Riyadh: Dar al-Salam.

Ibn Rashīq al-Qirwānī, Abū ᶜAlī al-Ḥasan (2001). al-ᶜUmdah fī Maḥāsin al-Shiᶜr wa Ādābuhu wa Naqdihi. Beirut: Maktabat al-ᶜAsriyyah.

Jaberi, S., Imran Ho Abdullah & Vengadasamy, R. (2016). “Mystical Love Metaphors: A Cognitive Analysis of Sohrab Sepehri’s Poetry.” GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 16(1), 143-156. Retrieved from http://ejournal.ukm.my/gema/issue/view/750. [12 December 2017].

Jajang A. Rohmana (2015). “Sastra Sufistik Melayu dan Sunda di Nusantara: Mempertemukan Hamzah Fansuri dan Haji Hasan Mustapa.” Ibda’ Jurnal Kebudayaan Islam, 13(1), 1-27.

Johansen, Jorgen Dines (2002). Literary Discourse – A Semiotic-Pragmatic Approach to Literature. Canada: University of Toronto Press.

Kamal, M. (2017). “Ibn ‘Arabi and Spinoza on God and the World.” Open Journal of Philosophy, 7, 409-421.

al-Khatib, Ali (1404H). Ittijahat al-Adab al-Ṣūfī bayna al-Hallāj wa Ibn ᶜArabī. Kaherah: Dar el-Maarif.

Knysh, Alexander D. (1999). Ibn Arabi in the Later Islamic Tradition: The Making of a Polemical Image in Medieval Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Louwerse, M. & Qu, Z. (2017). “Estimating Valence from the Sound of a Word: Computational, Experimental, and Cross-linguistic Evidence.”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 24(3), 849-855.

Lutfi, Huda (1985). “The Feminine Element in Ibn Arabi’s Mystical Philosophy.” Alif: Journal of Comparative Poetics, 5,. 7-19.

Mahdavi, B. (2017). “The Role of Allegory and Symbol in Expressing the Fixed Entities in Araghi and Ibn-e-Arabi’s View.” Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 6(1), 817-824.

Mohd Sani Badron (2013). Ibn al-Arabi’s Conception of Religion. 2nd Ed. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit IKIM.

Muhammad Luthfi. 2020. Divine Love in Ibn Arabi, Hamzah Fansuri, and Emha Ainun Nadjib’s Poems. Journal of Xi’an University of Architecture & Technology. XII (III), 3620-3631. (http://www.xajzkjdx.cn/gallery/311-mar2020.pdf)

Nasr, Atif Jawdah (1983). al-Ramz al-Shi’r inda al-Sufiyyah. 3rd Ed., Beirut: Dar al-Andalus.

Nuraini H. A. Mannan (2016). “Karya Sastra Ulama Sufi Aceh Hamzah Fansuri Bingkai Sejarah Dunia Pendidikan.” Substantia, 18 (2), 197-206. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/228453764.pdf [30 September 2020].

Orfali, B. (2017). “Mystical Poetics: Courtly Themes in Early Sufi Akhbār.” Pomerantz, M.A. & Vitz, E. B. (ed), in In the Presence of Power: Court and Performance in the Pre-Modern Middle East. New York: New York University Press, 196-214.

al-Qushayri, Abu al-Qasim Abd al-Karim Huwazan (n.d). al-Risalah al-Qushayriyyah. Kaherah: Matba’ah Hassan.

Rahman Shaari (2001). Bimbingan Istilah Sastera. Kuala Lumpur: Utusan Publications.

Sebeok, Thomas A. (2001). Signs: An Introduction to Semiotics. 2nd Ed. Canada: University of Toronto Press Incorporated.

Sa’diyya Shaikh (2012). Sufi Narratives of Intimacy: Ibn Arabi, Gender, and Sexuality. United States of America: The University of North Carolina Press.

Sajad Hussain Wani (2016). “Sufi Poetry and Symbolism: From a River to the Divine Dark in Shamas Faqir’s Poetry.” Language in India, (16), 200-221.

Samiha Nesraoui (2016). “al-Ramz al-Sufi: Dirasah Ta’wiliyyah.” Nadi al-Adab: Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa, Sastra, Seni dan Kebudayaan Arab. 13(2), pp. 8-20.

Sharvani, Z. A. K., & Sattar, S. A. (2017). “Visishtādvaita and Wahdatul-Wujūd: Points of comparison and departure.” Tattva-Journal of Philosophy, 8(1), 1-18.

Susanti, E. (2014). “Budaya Malu Cerminan bagi Perempuan Melayu.” Sosial Budaya, 11(2), 226-236.

Syarifuddin (2017). Memperdebat Wujudiyah Sheikh Hamzah Fansuri – Kajian Hermeneutik atas Karya Sastra Hamzah Fansuri. Religia, 13 (2), 139-155. (https://www.researchgate.net/deref/http%3A%2F%2Fdx.doi.org%2F10.28918%2Freligia.v13i2.179).

al-Thaᶜālabī, Abū Manṣūr Ismāᶜīl al-Naysābūrī (n.d). Kitāb Fiqh al-Lughah wa Sir al-ᶜArabiyyah. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub a-ᶜIlmiyyah.

Wan Mohd Saghir Abdullah (1996). Tafsir Puisi Hamzah Fansuri dan Karya-karya Sufi. Kuala Lumpur: Khazanah Fathaniyah.

Widdowson, H.G. (2000). Practical Stylistics: An Approach to Poetry. 2nd Ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zakaria Stapa (1993). Ibnu Arabi Tokoh Sufi. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Zaitul Azma Zainon Hamzah & Ahmad Fuad Mat Hassan (2011). “Bahasa dan Pemikiran dalam Peribahasa Melayu.” GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, 11(3), 31-51. Retrieved from http://ejournal.ukm.my/gema/issue/view/27. [12 Disember 2017].

Zargar, C. A. (2016). “Allegory and Ambiguity in the Films of Majid Majidi: A Theodicy of Meaning.” Journal of Religion & Film, 20(1), 1-32.

Zurakintan Abdul Razak & Che Ibrahim Salleh (2015). “Pemikiran Melayu tentang Ilmu dan Adab dalam Puisi Melayu Ttradisional.” International Journal of the Malay World and Civilisation, 3(2), 121-129.

Downloads

Published

2021-06-29

How to Cite

Parman, M., & Marni, N. (2021). Sufi Symbols In Poems Of Ibn ᶜArabi And Hamzah Fansuri. UMRAN - International Journal of Islamic and Civilizational Studies, 8(2), 21–38. https://doi.org/10.11113/umran2021.8n2.498

Issue

Section

Islamic Studies