Factors Contributing to Inefficient Management and Maintenance of Waqf Properties: A Literature Review
Keywords:Property Management, Inefficient Management and Maintenance, Waqf Properties, Sustainability, Income
Fundamentally, an effective management of properties has been established as a healthy way of increasing the value and benefits of real estate. The sources of awqaf (waqf) are quite rich. However, the issues of the sustainability of valuable waqf properties have not yet been explored especially with regards to sustaining and enhancing the value through sound principles of property management. Thus, this paper presents a literature review concerning the factors contributing to inefficient management and maintenance of waqf properties globally with a particular focus on Malaysia. From the findings, they have five factors identified that consist of; insufficient fund, lack of best performance by waqf manager, unregistered of waqf land under SIRC, out-dated data and confiscation of ownership rights by heirs from SIRC. Yet, due to the lack of study in the area of the maintenance function of waqf properties, it strongly suggested that there is a need to fill the gap in the body of knowledge of which both; management and maintenance function (operational management) shall take into account in waqf management practice as well. This is very important to achieve sustainability of valuable waqf properties by providing a continuous stream of income through effective and efficient of the waqf management system.
Abdul Malik, A. B. (2012). Comparative Study On Management Of Waqf Land. Degree Dissertation, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Abdullah, M. (2010). "Malaysia needs transformation of Waqf management". Travelodge PhD Wakaf@ Mohamad Salleh Abdullah, blog entry, retrived from: https://sallehabdullah.blogspot.com/search?q=Malaysia+needs+transformation+of+Waqf+management, date of accessed 27th February 2018.
Abdullah, S., Abdul Razak, A., & Hamid Kadir Pakir, A. (2011). "The characteristics of real estate assets management practice in the Malaysian Federal Government". Journal of Corporate Real Estate, Vol. 13(1), pp. 16-35.
Ahmed, H., & Khan, A. (1998). "Strategies to develop waqf administration in India". Research paper (50).
Al-Marghinani's. (1936). Al-Hidayah. 4 vols. Cairo, .
Ali, S. N. M., Johari, N., Fauzi, N. S., Ahmad, N., Chuweni, N. N., & Noor, A. H. M. (2016). Income Optimization From Waqf Properties: Sustaining The Acheen Street Mosque. e-Proceeding of the Social Sciences Research ICSSR.
Appel-Meulenbroek, R. (2008). "Managing 'keep' factors of office tenants to raise satisfaction and loyalty". Property Management, 26 (1), pp. 43-55.
Baharum, Z. A., Nawawi, A. H., & Saat, Z. M. (2009). "Service Quality and Property Management Service: A Conceptual Framework". Journal of Built Environment, 6(1), pp. 12-34.
Bakhoum, D. (2014). Awqaf Properties; Maintenance and Management. Urban Regeneration Project for Historic Cairo.
Chowdhury, M. S. R., Ghazali, M. F., & Ibrahim, M. F. (2011). "Economics of Cash WAQF management in Malaysia: A proposed Cash WAQF model for practitioners and future researchers". African Journal of Business Management, 5(30), 12155.
Christudason, A. (2004). "Common property in strata titled developments in Singapore: common misconceptions". Property Management, 22(1), 14-28.
Dahlia, I., & Haslindar, I. (2013). Revival of Waqf properties in Malaysia. Paper presented at the The 5th Islamic Economics System Conference (iECONS 2013), Kuala Lumpur, 4 - 5 September 2013.
Dean, D., & Lee, C. (1998). "Winning applause". Journal of Property Management, 63(2), 42-46.
Dunn, C. (2010). "The Appraisal Of Real Estate 3rd Canadian Edition Busi 330". Review Notes by Real Estate Division and Chuck Dunn.
Epley, D. R., & Rabianski, J. (1986). Principles of real estate decisions: Reston Pub Co.
Harun, R., Isa, Z. M., & Ali, N. (2012). Preliminary findings on Waqf management practices among Selected Muslim Countries. Paper presented at the International Conference on Economics Marketing and Management IPEDR, Singapore, 26th to 28th February 2012.
Hassan, A., & Shahid, M. M. A. (2010). Management and development of the awqaf assets. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference–The Tawhidi Epistemology: Zakat and Waqf Economy, Bangi, 6-7 Januari, 2010.
Hassan, S. A., & Rashid, R. A. (2015). Towards Improvement of The Rights And Duties of Mutawalli And Nazir In The Management And Administration of Waqf Assets. The 9th ISDEV International Islamic Development Management Conference : IDMAC2015 : Islamic asset management : PROCEEDING, 8 - 9 December 2015.
Hin Li, L. (1997). "Property management in China: opportunities and problems". Property Management, 15(1), 6-11.
Huzaim, Y. O. A. (2014). An Exceptional Woman Wife of a King: Darussalam Publishers.
Ibrahim, A. A. M., & Khan, S. H. (2015). Waqf Management In Bangladesh: An Analysis From Maqasid Al-Shar ‘Ah Perspective. Retrieved from iais.org.my on October 23, 2016
Ismail, C. Z., Salim, N. J., & Hanafiah, N. J. A. (2015). Administration and Management of Waqf Land in Malaysia: Issues and Solutions" Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), pp. 613.
Kader, S. Z. S. A. (2016). Kerangka Undang-Undang Pengurusan Wakaf Di Malaysia: Ke Arah Keseragaman Undang-Undang. Kanun, 28(1), pp. 101-126.
Kahf, M. (2003). The role of waqf in improving the ummah welfare. Paper presented at the International seminar on Waqf as a Private Legal Body, Islamic University of North Sumatra, Indonesia, 6-7 January, 2003.
Kamaruddin, N. (1992). Isu pembangunan tanah wakaf di Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (1st ed. ).
Karim, S. A. (2007). Contemporary Waqf Administration and Development in Singapore-Challenges and Prospects. Paper presented at the Singapore International Waqf Conference 2007, 6 – 7 March 2007.
Kholid, M., Sukmana, R., & Hassan, K. A. K. (2009). "Waqf Management through Sukuk Al-intifa'a: A Generic Model", Refereed Biannual Journal Spscialized in Waqf and Charitable activities, No.17-Year 9 (Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation Studies and External Relations Department).
Loh, S. C. (1991). Property management: an overview. Surveyor, No. 4th Quarterly’91, pp. 25-32.
Mahamood, S. M. (2006a). Perundangan Wakaf dan Isu-isu Berbangkit. Konvensyen Wakaf Kebangsaan 2006, Kuala Lumpur, 12-14 September 2006.
Mahamood, S. M. (2006b). Waqf in Malaysia: Legal and administrative perspectives: University of Malaya Press.
Majid, R. A., & Said, R. (2014). Permasalahan Pengurusan Hartanah Wakaf Di Malaysia. International Surveying Research Journal (ISrJ), 4(1), 29-43.
Md, S. R. C., Iftekhar, A. C., Muhammad, M. Z., & Yasoa, M. R. (2012). Problems of WAQF administration and proposals for improvement: A study in Malaysia. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 17(1), 1.
Mohamad, N. A., Kader, S. A., Zubaidah, S., & Ali, Z. (2012). Waqf lands and challenges from the legal perspectives in Malaysia. Retrieved from irep.iium.edu.my/28025/1/6a.pdf, date of accessed: September 22, 2017
Mohammad, M. T. S., & Iman, A. H. M. (2005). An ideal financial mechanism for the development of waqf properties in Malaysia. Research reported available online: eprints, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
Mohammad, M. T. S., & Mar-Iman, A. (2006). Obstacles of the current concept of waqf to the development of waqf properties and the recommended alternative. Malaysian Journal of Real Estate, 1(1), pp. 27-38.
Mohammad, M. T. S. H. (2009). A Proposal for a New Comprehensive Waqf Law in Malaysia. Retrieved from https://kantakji.com/wakf/a-proposal-for-a-new-comprehensive-waqf-law-in-malaysia.aspx, date of accesede: 29 October, 2016.
Mohsin, A., & Mohammad, M. (2011). Weaknesses of current capital raising, financing, and investment methods of awqaf (Islamic Trusts). Paper presented at the International Conference on Social Science and Humanity, Singapore, 2011-02-26.
Mohsin, A., & Mohammad, M. T. S. (2015). "The Effectiveness of Saham Waqf on Adequacy of Funds for Development Projects in Malaysia". International Journal of Real Estate Studies, Volume 9 Number 2.
Mokhtar, S., Ibrahim, M., Omer, S., & Osman, D. H. J. H. (2008). Issues, Problems and Strategies of Waqf Land Development in Malaysia–Literature Review. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Conference Management in Construction Researchers’ Association MICRA, Kuala Lumpur, 8 - 19 June 2008.
Ngah, K. (1992). Isu pembangunan tanah wakaf: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kementerian Pendidikan, Malaysia.
Noor, A. H. M., Ali, N. A. M., Abdullah, A., & Tahir, H. H. M. (2014). The Waqf Governance Framework in Malaysia. International Conference On Development Of Social Enterprise And Social Business For Eradication Of Extreme Poverty And Street Begging, Chittagong, Bangladesh, 19-20 December 2014.
Noor, F. M. (2011). Wakaf Delivering System in Malaysia with Special Reference to Jabatan Wakaf, Zakat dan Hai (JAWHAR) dan Yayasan Wakaf Malaysia. . 3rd Langkawi International Conference on Islamic Finance and Economics (LIFE3), Langkawi, 29 - 31 October 2011.
Norinah, M. A., Rahman, M., Ahmad, R., & Mahdzan, N. S. A. (2015). Necessity of effective and efficient business model for development of Waqf lands in Malaysia. Conference: Muktamar Waqf IQLIMI II 2015: Enhancing social enterprise and Islamic philanthropy through Ijtima'i and Waqf, At USIM, 26 August 2015.
Osman, S., Mat, I., Ahmad, J., & Othman, Y. (2015). "Unlocking Value Of Waqf Property Using Hibah Mudharabah: A Case Study Of Commercial Buildings In Kedah, Malaysia". International Journal of Development Research, 5(5), pp. 4294-4299.
Oyedokun, T., Oletubo, A., & Adewusi, A. (2014). "Satisfaction of occupiers with management of rented commercial properties in Nigeria: An empirical study". Property Management, 32(4), pp 284-294.
Puad, N. A. M., Rafdi, N. J., & Shahar, W. S. S. (2014). Issues And Challenges Of Waqf Instrument: A Case Study In Mais. E-proceedings of the Conference on Management and Muamalah (CoMM 2014).
Raissouni, A. (2001). "Islamic ‘Waqf Endowment’: Scope and implications", (A. Benhallam, Trans.). Rabat: Islamic Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation, ISESCO.
Ramli, A. H. (2005). Pengurusan Wakaf Di Malaysia: Cabaran Dan Masa Depan. Pusat Penerbitan Universiti (UPENA) UiTM, Shah Alam Selangor.
Rani, M. A. M., Ismail, H., & Ismail, C. Z. (2010). Penyewaan Tanah Wakaf Dari Perspektif Hukum Syarak Dan Amalannya Di Malaysia. Kertas Kerja Seminar Syariah dan Undang-undang, Anjuran Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), 2-3 November 2010.
Rashid, R. A., Hussin, R., & Yaakub, N. I. (2015). Kawalan, Penguatkuasaan, Pendakwaan Serta Hukuman Bagi Isu Pencerobohan Tanah Wakaf Di Malaysia. in 9th ISDEV International Islamic Development Management Conference, Penang, 8 - 9 December 2015.
Rashid, S. K. (2011). Certain Legal and Administrative Measures for the Revival and better management of Awqaf. Islamic Research and Training Institute.
Richard, E. (1961). Property Management. cited in S.N. Kamaruzzaman, D. M.Tahir, A.M.A. Zaidi (2009): A Review of Managing Agent in Property Management Industry in Malaysia. Date of accessed July 25, 2016.
RICS. (2005). Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors.
Saad, N. M., Kassim, S., & Hamid, Z. (2013). "Involvement of corporate entities in Waqaf management: experiences of Malaysia and Singapore". Asian Economic and Financial Review, 3(6), pp. 736.
Sadeq, A. H. M. (2002). "Waqf, perpetual charity and poverty alleviation". International Journal of Social Economics, 29(1/2), pp. 135-151.
Samsudin, K. J. (2017). "Strengthening Education Waqf Fund For Higher Education Institutions". Contemporary Issues and Development in Islamic Social Finance, pp. 211-225.
Scarrett, D. (1983). Pengurusan Harta. Translation - Ismail Omar (1993). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Sedek, A. S., Yaakub, N. I., Hamid, M. A., & Palil, R. (2013). Waqf: A Contribution Towards Economic Development. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference On Management, Economics, and Finance Proceeding. 28 -29 October 2013, Sabah.
Siraj, S. A. (2012). An empirical investigation into the accounting, accountability and effectiveness of WAQF management in the State Islamic Religious Councils (SIRCs) in Malaysia. Ph.D Thesis, Cardiff University.
Thorncroft, M. (1965). Principles of estate management, Estates Gazette Limited: London.
Zakaria, M., Hassan, M. S., & Latiff, R. A. (2014). Pelaporan Wakaf di Malaysia: Mengenalpasti Keperluan Maklumat Pemegang Kepentingan. Paper presented at the Persidangan Kebangsaan Ekonomi Malaysia ke-9 (PERKEM ke-9), Terengganu,17 - 19 October 2014.
How to Cite
Copyright of articles that appear in UMRAN - International Journal of Islamic and Civilizational Studies belongs exclusively to Penerbit Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Penerbit UTM Press). This copyright covers the rights to reproduce the article, including reprints, electronic reproductions or any other reproductions of similar a nature.